The last six months remained high risk, as has been the case for Mexican journalism in recent years, because of the killings and physical attacks on journalists as well as the level of impunity for unsolved crimes. Attacks by organized crime, impunity, and efforts by certain governments at various levels to control the independent press are the most obvious threats to freedom of press. The killing of two journalists, the killing of three newspaper vendors and threats against nine reporters show that the lack of safety for journalists is a pending topic that the Mexican government needs to address. Unfortunately, the impunity that plagues many government investigations into these attacks only encourages further attacks on press freedom in Mexico. An example of this impunity is the case of reporter Alfredo Jiménez of El Imparcial of Sonora, who disappeared 924 days ago. It is still not known who was responsible. Another case is that of journalist Héctor Félix Miranda, El Gato Félix (Felix the Cat), of Tijuana, Baja California, co-editor of the weekly Zeta. His killing 23 years ago has not been solved. Yet another is the case of columnist Víctor Manuel Oropeza of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. Those responsible for that crime have not been prosecuted, despite the governments promise to solve the case. In contrast to these violent cases, it should be noted that press freedom took a big step forward in Mexico on April 13, when the Senate passed a bill decriminalizing defamation-related crimes, also known as press crimes. The change is in effect at the federal level, but most states still need to adjust their laws accordingly. Also in legislative matters, the request that the IAPA has been making since 1997 is still pending: that is, to make it a federal offense to commit a crime against freedom of speech; to make targeting a journalist an aggravating circumstance in a crime; and to make crimes against journalists exempt from statutes of limitations. Congress approved constitutional amendments to modify the Election Law, stirring controversy and provoking harsh criticism, especially from owners of broadcast media outlets, who say the changes violate freedom of expression. They said the new law prohibits individuals and public or private entities from buying or broadcasting messages on radio and television to influence voters or to benefit or discredit any party or candidate for elected office. These changes mean that broadcast media outlets can no longer make money from political advertising during election seasons, as these ads will now run for free during airtime that the Mexican government has assigned by law. The reforms have been approved by the state legislatures and will soon be published and become law. Below is a summary of significant attacks on freedom of speech between April and September 2007: Slain Journalists On April 7 Amado Ramírez, Televisa correspondent in Guerrero state, was killed by an unidentified person who shot him several times as he was leaving a radio station in Acapulco. Later it was reported that he had been threatened with death several times in the previous month. On April 17, Saúl Martínez Ortega, a reporter for the weekly Interdiario, was grabbed in front of the police station in Agua Prieta, Sonora, on the border with the United States. A week later his body was found in Chihuahua state. On October 8, newspaper vendors Mateo Cortés Martínez, Agustín López and Flor Vásquez López of El Imparcial del Istmo of Oaxaca were killed by unidentified people who shot them with high-caliber guns from a pickup truck. The newspaper workers were traveling on one of the highways on the Tehuantepec Isthmus when they were attacked, apparently by members of organized crime. On May 14 in Monterrey, Nuevo León, in northern Mexico, Gamaliel López, a reporter for TV Azteca Noreste, and his cameraman Gerardo Paredes disappeared when they were on their way to cover the birth of conjoined twins in Monterrey. Five months later they are still missing. On May 8 in Mexico City, Lydia Cacho, who authored a book about a group of pedophiles who had connections to Mexican governors, reported that a truck she was traveling in had been sabotaged. The driver lost control of the vehicle but managed to bring it to a stop. After the incident, he discovered that the lug nuts had been intentionally loosened. Cacho was not injured in the incident. On May 15, the correspondent of El Orbe newspaper of Chiapas was run over as he went to cover a news event. Forty-eight hours later, he received threats on his cell phone from Councilman Didier Rojas González who had threatened another journalist with a gun before. A week later in Torreón, Coahuila, a journalist of El Sol de la Laguna was reported missing. He had left his home, but did not arrive at work. His abandoned vehicle was found in Gómez Palacio, Durango. Hours later he was found. He had been beaten, but was alive. On June 13, Misael Sánchez, a reporter for the daily Tiempo of Oaxaca, was shot twice by unidentified people as he was arriving home. No one was arrested. On August 6 in Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, in southeastern Mexico, another reporter was shot by unidentified people. Alfredo Fernández Portillas, host of the program BBM Noticias, was shot four times in the abdomen, but survived. On August 16, Eolo Pacheco Rodríguez, editor of the daily El Regional del Sur in Cuernavaca, Morelos, was kidnapped by several people who held him for 20 minutes. They beat him and threatened to kill him because someone had fingered him. He was finally released. On April 27 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, two armed men entered the home of journalist Mónica Tola Gómez and subdued her husband and maid in an attempt to terrorize the journalist. They left a message saying that she better tone it down. On May 3, World Press Freedom Day, a body was found and the head was placed in the old Pescadería Market of Veracruz with a written message threatening journalists in that state. On May 22, Julio César Antúnez Villalba, a Televisa cameraman in Chilpancingo, Guerrero, said he was threatened with death a month and a half after his partner, reporter Amado Ramírez, was killed. On May 26, security guards found the severed head of municipal official who had been executed four days earlier at the entrance of the daily Tabasco Hoy in the Gulf state of Tabasco. On May 30 in Mexicali, Baja California, Antonio Heras Sánchez, a correspondent for La Jornada newspaper, reported to the public prosecutors office that he had been threatened by an official of the State Elections Institute. On June 12 in Tamaulipas state in northeastern Mexico, the executive editor of the daily Hora Cero, Heriberto Deandar Robinson, and the managing editor, Héctor Hugo Jiménez, said they had been threatened by people close to the mayor of Reynosa, Tamaulipas. Days later the newspapers office had to have police protection because of the increasing threats. A month later in Mérida, Yucatán, Mario Renato Menéndez Rodríguez, editor of Por Esto, received death threats and requested security for himself and his family. On August 4 in Parral, Chihuahua, Cecilia Granados, a reporter for El Sol de Parral, was harassed and threatened with death by a local businessman who was upset over reports about his kidnapping. On September 1, Martín Serrano Herrera, editor of Diario Tribuna, was threatened with death in Jalapa, Veracruz. Unidentified people left five AK-47 bullets at his house on the front page of one of his newspapers and with a red liquid that looked like blood. On April 18, the daily Cambio Sonora in Hermosillo, Sonora, was attacked with a fragmentation grenade that exploded near the administrative offices. A month later, another grenade exploded in the parking lot. Five days later, the company announced that it would close the newspaper temporarily, and at the end of September it announced that it was closing permanently because of the danger. On June 2, the newspaper A.M. of Guanajuato reported that the state government had ordered a news and advertising blackout because he was upset about articles linking officials of his administration to the Mexican far right. Since September 2006, state officials have been publicly insulting executives of the paper. A.M. has filed a criminal complaint that is now being heard by the courts. Uno Más Uno and other newspapers of that company in the state of Mexico reported at the beginning of September that the state government had threatened and attacked them, and the officials in question have not responded to their complaints.