All political and social activity — including journalism — was affected during this period, particularly as a result of natural disasters. Haiti was struck by three hurricanes in August and September 2008. This has further hampered efforts to stabilize Haiti’s democracy. Still, Haitian journalists tenaciously continued to inform the public, despite limited resources and severe property damage suffered by media outlets such as newspapers and radio stations, which made it very difficult to get the news out. Among recent violations of press freedom are the following: On January 6 a court in Gonaïves convicted Jackson Elusmé (aka Jumeau) and Alix Souffrant (aka Bout Zòrèy ) and sentenced them to 10 years in prison for their involvement in the May 16, 2007, killing of Alix Joseph, a manager and announcer at Radio-Télé Provinciale in Gonaïves. Nine of the 11 defendants tried on December 15, 2008 — including alleged gang leaders Remilien Emmanuel (aka Ti Nasson) and Verna Joseph — were acquitted. The alleged gunman, Jerry Bien-Aimé, remains at large and was convicted in absentia. On December 16, a court in the city of Jacmel, in southwestern Haiti, ordered police officer Bastien Novembre to pay 100,000 gourdes (about US$2,500) to reporter Fritzer Philogène of Radio Express for assaulting him on October 29, 2008. Philogène was attacked by Novembre after he found the officer beating a suspect near the police station. On December 10 a court sentenced journalist Joseph Guyler C. Delva to one month in prison for defamation. Former senator Rudolph Boulos had filed a complaint against Delva, who is president of the group S.O.S. Journalistes and a correspondent for BBC and Reuters. Delva had said that Boulos has a U.S. passport, and his dual nationality would make him ineligible under the 1987 Constitution to serve in the Haitian Senate. Delva, who also heads the Independent Commission to Assist Investigations into Murders of Journalists, has accused Boulos on several occasions of hindering the investigation into the April 2000 killing of Jean Leopold Dominique. The verdict was appealed. As a result of this case, Delva received a number of anonymous threats. December 3 marked the seven-year anniversary of the killing of Brignol Lindor, a journalist and station director at Radio Echo 2000 in Port-au-Prince. Two men are serving life sentences for the murder, though seven others who were found guilty remain at large.